General Characteristics of Forging Processes

There are variety of forging processes. Some of the forging processes are closed die forging, open die forging, blocker forging, conventional forging and precision forging. General characteristics (advantages and limitations) of these forging processes are listed below in tabular form.

1 Closed die forging Relatively good utilization of material; generally better properties than open-die forging; goods dimensional accuracy; high production rates; good reproducibility. High die cost, not economical for small quantities; machining often necessary.
2 Open die forging Simple and inexpensive dies; while range of part sizes; good strength characteristics; generally for small quantities. Limited to simple shapes; difficult to hold close tolerances; machining to final shape necessary; low production rate; relatively poor utilization of material; high degree of skill required.
3 Blocker forging Low die costs; high production rate. Machining to final shape necessary; parts with thick webs and large fillets.
4 Conventional forging Requires much less machining than blocker type; high production rates; good utilization of material. Higher die cost than blocker forging type.
5 Precision forging Close dimensional tolerances; very thin webs and flanges possible; machining generally not necessary; very good material utilization. High forging forces, intricate dies and provision for removing forging from dies..
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