General Characteristics of Forming and Shaping Processes

General characteristics of different forming and shaping processes such as flat rolling, shape rolling, drawing, extrusion, forging, forming and shaping of ceramics, sheet-metal forming, powder metallurgy and processing of plastics & composite materials.
1 Flat rolling Production of a flat plate, sheet, and foil at high speeds; high surface finish, especially in cold rolling; very high capital investment; low-to-moderate labor cost.
2 Shape rolling Production of various structural shapes (such as I-beams and rails) at high speeds; includes thread rolling; low-to-moderate labor cost; requires shaped rolls and expensive equipment; requires moderate operator skill.
3 Drawing Production of long rod and wire with various cross sections; good surface finish; requires low-to-moderate operator skill; low-to-moderate die, equipment and labor costs.
4 Extrusion Production of long lengths of solid or hollow shapes with constant cross section; the product is then cut into desired lengths; usually performed at elevated temperatures; cold extrusion has similarities to forging and is used to make discrete products; low-to-moderate labor cost; moderate-to-high die and equipment cost; requires low-to-moderate operator skill. 
5 Forging Production of discrete parts with a set of dies; some finishing operations usually required; usually performed at elevated temperature, but also cold for smaller parts; moderate-to-high labor cost; die and equipment costs are high;  requires low-to-moderate operator skill.
6 Forming and shaping of ceramics Production of discrete products by various shaping, drying and firing processes, requires moderate-to-high operator skill; low-to-moderate die and equipment cost.
7 Sheet-metal forming Production of a wide variety of shapes with thin walls and simple or complex geometries; generally low-to-moderate die, equipment and labor costs; require low-to-moderate operator skill.
8 Powder metallurgy Production of simple or complex shapes by compacting and sinstering metal powders; low labor cost and skill and moderate die and equipment cost.
9 Processing of plastics and composite materials Production of a wide variety of continuous or discrete products by extrusion, molding, casting and fabricating process; moderate die and equipment costs; requires high operator skill in the processing of composite materials.
Spread the Knowledge

'ME Mechanical' is an online portal for mechanical engineers and engineering students. Published hundreds of articles on various engineering topics. Visit our about section to know more.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.