Ceramics: Characteristics and Classification

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Ceramics are compounds of metallic and  non-metallic elements. The word ‘ceramic’ is originated from Greek word ‘keromikos‘, which means ‘burnt stuff’.

ceramics characteristics

Ceramic bowls and glasses

Characteristics of Ceramics:

  1. High-temperature stability.
  2. High hardness-brittleness.
  3. High mechanical strength.
  4. Low elongation under application of stress.
  5. Low thermal and electrical conductivities.

Classification of Ceramics:

Based on their composition classified as:

  1. Oxides,
  2. Carbides,
  3. Nitrides,
  4. Sulfides,
  5. Flourides, etc.

Based on application classified as:

  1. Glasses: containers, windows, mirrors, lenses.
  2. Clay products: structural products (bricks, tiles, sewer pipes) and whitewares (porcelain, chinaware, pottery, etc.).
  3. Refractories: Thermal insulation.
  4. Abrasives: Diamond, silicon carbide, tungsten carbide, silica sand, aluminum oxide/corundum are some typical examples of abrasive ceramic materials.
  5. Cement: construction brick.
  6. Advanced ceramics: heat engines, ceramic armors, electronic packaging, etc.
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