- High-temperature stability.
- High hardness-brittleness.
- High mechanical strength.
- Low elongation under application of stress.
- Low thermal and electrical conductivities.
Based on their composition classified as:
- Flourides, etc.
Based on application classified as:
- Glasses: containers, windows, mirrors, lenses.
- Clay products: structural products (bricks, tiles, sewer pipes) and whitewares (porcelain, chinaware, pottery, etc.).
- Refractories: Thermal insulation.
- Abrasives: Diamond, silicon carbide, tungsten carbide, silica sand, aluminum oxide/corundum are some typical examples of abrasive ceramic materials.
- Cement: construction brick.
- Advanced ceramics: heat engines, ceramic armors, electronic packaging, etc.