The die casting process is a manufacturing process for producing accurately dimensioned, sharply defined, smooth or textured surface metal parts. It is accomplished by injecting liquid metal at fast velocity and under high pressure into reusable steel dies. Die casting is at the top end of both speed and pressure compared to other casting processes. The high velocity translates into a very turbulent flow condition. The Die Casting process is often described as the shortest distance between raw materials and the finished product. The term die casting is also used to identify the cast product.
Commonly used metals in the die casting process for making the molds are steel, tool steel, tungsten carbide, etc.
The die casting is used only for producing low melting point metals like Aluminium, Lead, Tin, Zinc, Cadmium, etc.
It is of two types
- If the molten metal is flowing into the cavity due to gravitational force, the process is called gravity die casting.
- Therefore gravity dies casting is only used for producing simple parts of the casting.
Ex: I.C engine piston made by using aluminium alloy.
- If the flow molten into the casting cavity is due to the application of external pressure is called pressure die casting.
- Hence complex shapes of casting can be produced quickly.
Ex. I.C engine carburetor made by aluminium alloy.
Features of the Die casting process:
- Due to metal molds used, this process produces a fine-grained casting with superior mechanical properties.
- Produces a perfect surface finish of an order of 4 microns or better.
- Close dimensional tolerance can be obtained.
- This process is economical for large-scale production.
- Complicated shapes can not be produced.
- The cost of the die is very high.
- Not all metals can be cast.