The tool life can be defined in three different ways.
- The machining time between two successive regrinding of a cutting tool is called tool life. It is most commonly expressed in minutes.
- The volume of material removed in mass production.
- Several workpieces were machined (in mass production).
The life of a cutting tool is affected by the various factors mentioned below:
1. Properties of Work Piece Material:
- With the increase in hardness of the workpiece, forces and power consumption increase and tool wear increases. So tool life decreases.
- When ductility of the workpiece increases, forces and power consumption decrease, and tool wear decreases. So tool life increases.
- But there is no quantitative relationship available between properties of work and tool life.
2. Tool Geometry:
As the tool geometry changes, like when the rake angle increases, the tool life will increase. But there is no quantitative relationship between tool geometry and tool life.
3. Use of Cutting Fluid:
- When the cutting fluid is used during machining, it acts as a lubricant in the friction zone and carries away the heat during machining.
- So forces in machining with the use of cutting fluid. It increases by 25 to 40 %.
4. Process Parameters:
- Cutting speed
- Depth of cut
- Because of the uniqueness of process parameters, the researchers tried to establish a relationship between process parameters and tool life.
- Taylor has assumed that cutting velocity is the primary parameter influencing the tool life.
Taylor’s Tool Life Equation:
VTn = constant = C
where, V = Cutting velocity in m/min
T = tool life in minutes
C = Taylor’s constant = Cutting velocity for 1 minute tool
n = Taylor’s exponent depending mainly on cutting tool material
n = 0.05 to 0.1 for H.C steels.
n = 0.1 to 0.2 for H.S.S
n = 0.2 to 0.4 for carbides
n = 0.4 to 0.6 for ceramics
n = 0.7 to 0.9 for diamond