The screw thread is a continuous helical groove of specified cross-sections produced on the external or internal surface. A screw thread formed on a cylinder is known as a straight or parallel screw thread, while a screw thread formed on a cone or frustum is known as the tapered screw thread.
Axis of a thread: This is an imaginary line running longitudinally through the center of the screw.
Crest: The crest of the thread is the topmost surface joining the two sides.
Root: The root of the thread is the bottom of the groove between the two flanks.
Flank: Flank of thread are straight edges that connect the crest with the root of the thread.
Pitch: The pitch of a thread is the distance measured parallel to the axis from a point on a thread to the corresponding points on adjacent thread forms in the same axial plane and on the same side of the axis.
Depth of thread: The depth of a thread is the distance between the crest and root of the thread.
Major diameter: It is an imaginary largest diameter of the thread which would touch the crests of an internal or external thread.
Minor diameter: It is an imaginary smallest diameter of the thread which would touch the roots of an external thread.
Pitch diameter: It is a theoretical diameter between the major and minor diameter of screw threads.
Lead angle: On the straight thread, It is the angle made by the helix of the thread at the pitch line with a plane perpendicular to the axis. Lead angle is measured in an axial plane.
Flank angle: Flank angle is the angle made by the flank of a thread perpendicular to the axis of a thread.
Included angle: The included angle is the angle between the flanks or slope of the thread measured in an axial plane.
The lead: It is the distance the nut moves parallel to the screw axis when the nut is given one turn. For a single thread as shown in the figure above, the lead is the same as the pitch of the screw thread.
Mechanical Engineering Design by Shigley – chapter 8 slide
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